عنوان مقاله [English]
Polyphony is the simultaneous presence of multiple and diverse points of view and sounds with the same power, where none of the sounds dominates the other or is superior to the other. Free indirect speech is the main method of creating polyphony, as one of the literary techniques creating ambiguity in the texte. In the field of literature, the discourses are divided into several categories: direct speech, indirect speech, free direct speech and free indirect speech. In this paper, we will try to explain the concept of polyphony, to introduce and explain the indices of free indirect speech and to explain the impact of free indirect speech on the formation of polyphony, by analyzing some parts of two translations of Madame Bovary's novel of Gustave Flaubert,, in Persian, that made by Mohammad Ghazi (1990) and that of Mehdi Sahabi (2016). We try to answer this question : How the polyphonic technique appears in novel's translation and what effect it has on comprehension of the translation. We will then study the workings of translators and their tasks to translating the indices of this speech and we will evaluate their knowledge and understanding of the subject.
Polyphony, Free Indirect Speech, Madame Bovary, Mahdi Sahabi, Mohammad Ghazi